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动词的过去式和过去分词怎么背?

 
 

动词的过去式

动词的过去式是在动词原形的基础上变化的。动词的过去式可分为规则动词和不规则动词。规则动词的过去式变化如下:

   (1)一般情况下,动词词尾加 ed ,如:
   worked played wanted acted
   (2)以不发音的 e 结尾动词,动词词尾加 d,如:
   lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped
   (3)以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把y变为i 再加ed,如:
   studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied
   (4)以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写词尾辅音字母,再加 ed,如:
   stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped
   (5)不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。
   go - went,make - made,get - got ,buy - bought ,come - came ,fly-flew ,is/am-was,are-were ,see-saw ,bring-brought,do-did,teach-taught, think-thought, say-said,sit-sat.
   put-put,grow-grew,take,took,catch-caught,come-camebecome-became,swim-swam,sweep—swept,sing—sang,draw—drew,

 

动词的过去分词:

规则动词的过去分词由动词原形加ed构成,不规则动词的过去分词见不规则动词表。

 

为了帮助大家记住不规则动词,现在把常用的不规则动词分为几个类型,每个类型中又分若干组,尽量找出每组中各词变化形式的共同点,以帮助记忆背诵。


1. A---A---A型(现在式、过去式和过去分词同形)
动词原形(现在式) 过去式 过去分词
cost cost cost 花费
cut cut cut 割,切
hit hit hit 打
let let let 让
put put put 放下
read read read 读
hurt hurt hurt 伤


2. A---A---B型(现在式和过去式同形)
beat beat beaten 打


3. A---B---A型(现在式和过去分词同形)
come came come 来
become became become 变
run ran run 跑


4. A ---B ---B型

(1)在动词原形后加一个辅音字母d或t构成过去式或过去分词。
burn burnt burnt 燃烧
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt 学习
mean meant meant 意思
hear heard heard 听见

(2)把动词原形的最后一个辅音字母“d”改为“t” 构成过去式或过去分词。
build built built 建筑
lend lent lent 借给
lose lost lost 失去
send sent sent 送
spend spent spent 花费

(3)其他
pay paid paid 付
lay laid laid 下蛋
say said said 说

bring brought brought 带来
buy bought bought 买
think thought thought 想

sleep slept slept 睡
keep kept kept 保持
sweep swept swept 扫

stand stood stood 站
understand understood understood 明白

win won won 得胜
shine shone/shined shone/shined 发光

catch caught caught 抓住
teach taught taught 教
feel felt felt 觉得
fight fought fought 战斗
find found found 发现
get got got 得到
hang hanged/ hung hanged/ hung 绞死,挂
have had had 有
hold held held 盛,握
leave left left 离开
make made made 制造
meet met met 遇见
sell sold sold 卖
shoot shot shot 射击
tell told told 告诉
smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled 嗅,闻
sit sat sat 坐
dig dug dug 挖

5. A---B---C型(现在式、过去式和过去分词都不相同)

(1)在动词原形后加-n或-en构成过去分词。

eat ate eaten 吃
fall fell fallen 落下
steal stole stolen 偷
give gave given 给
freeze froze frozen 冻结
take took taken 拿
see saw seen 看见

write wrote written 写
ride rode ridden 骑
drive drove driven 驾驶

throw threw thrown 抛,扔
blow blew blown 吹
grow grew grown 生长
know knew known 知道

fly flew flown 飞
draw drew drawn 拉,绘画
show showed shown 展示

(2)过去式加-n或-en构成过去分词。
speak spoke spoken 说话
break broke broken 破碎,折断
wake waked/ woke waked/ waken 醒
choose chose chosen 选择
forget forgot forgotten 忘记

(3)变单词在重读音节中的元音字母“i”分别为“a”(过去式)和“u”(过去分词)。
begin began begun 开始
ring rang rung 按铃
sing sang sung 唱
sink sank sunk 沉
swim swam swum 游泳
drink drank drunk 饮

(4)其他不规则动词的变化。
be(am, is) was/ were been 是
be(are) were been 是
do did done 做
go went gone 去
lie lay lain 躺
wear wore worn 穿

 
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